Thyroid cancer is the most rapidly growing cancer in the United States. According to the most recent statistics from the National Cancer Institute, thyroid cancer diagnoses increased at a rate of 6.5 percent per year from 1997 to 2006. Patients with thyroid cancer — even invasive forms of the disease — often have no symptoms. Surgery is often curative. However, understanding the extent of surgery that is required for each individual patient demands not just surgical experience, but an awareness of the risk profile of each patient. That insight comes from a thorough understanding of the biology of the various forms of thyroid cancer. At the Institute for Head and Neck and Thyroid Cancer, we make decisions judiciously after a thorough assessment of the extent of the patient’s disease. Surgical intervention is recommended only when appropriate and when the patient’s endocrinologist and our expert cytologist concur. Once a decision is made, we work in concert with the referring endocrinologist to decide the best therapeutic pathway and to provide follow-up therapy and long-term care.